DIETS & KIDNEY RELATED DISEASES
Diets & kidney relationship has alot of role to play in maintaining peak body performance You can put a kidney in your body and somewhere down the line your body might reject it.’ world kidney day quotes and sayings
IN SEARCH OF BALANCED DIET.
WHAT IS DIET?
Diet is a controlled regimen of foods and drinks to influence good health.
WHAT IS A BALANCED DIET?
A balanced diet is a diet that contains adequate amount of all the necessary nutrients required for healthy growth and activity.
EAT WELL PYRAMID.
EFFECTS OF DIET ON KIDNEY.
The picture above depicts the correct food relation with your kidney. It shows you what to eat more of and what to eat less of. The kidney is a major organ in your body responsible for the filtration of food and drinks we consume to extract their useful materials and remove the waste products from our body.
WHAT THEN IS A KIDNEY?
Kidney is a pair of organ in the human body’s urinary system. Human beings, as well as members of all other vertebrate species, typically have two kidneys.
Like beans, your kidney is dark red and have a shape in which one side is convex or rounded and the other is concave or indented. ‘
The kidneys of an average adult are about 10 to 13cm (4 to 5in) long and about 5 to 7.5cm (2 to 3 in) width the size of a computer mouse.
The kidneys lie against the rear wall of the abdomen, on either side of the spine. They are situated below the middle of the back, beneath the liver on the right and the spleen on the left.
Each kidney is encased in a transparent fibrous membrane called a renal capsule which helps protect it against trauma and infection. The concave part of the kidney attaches to two of the body’s crucial blood vessels: the renal artery and the renal vein and the urethra, a tube-like structure that carries urine to the bladder.
A primary function of kidneys is the removal of poisonous wastes from the blood. Chief among these wastes are the nitrogen-containing compounds urea and uric acid, which result from the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids.
Life-threatening illness occurs when too many of these waste products accumulate in the bloodstream. Fortunately, a healthy kidney can rid the body of these substances. It shows us that what goes into the body is vital.
“A primary function of kidneys is the removal of poisonous wastes from the blood. Chief among these wastes are the nitrogen-containing compounds urea and uric acid, which result from the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids. “
- Kidney Stone
- Nephrotic Syndrome
- Hepatorenal Syndrome
- Cystic Kidney Disease
- Diabetes and Diabetic Kidney Diseases
- Acute Renal Failure
- Chronic Renal Failure
Renal failure is a total or impending loss of the kidneys ability to carry out its functions of
- Maintaining the normal volume and composition of the internal environment that is excretion of metabolic waste.
- Its role in fluid formation electrolyte and acid based balance.
TYPES OF RENAL FAILURE
Acute or renal failure is a sudden severe interruption of the kidney function of recent onset.
Chronic renal failure is a progressive deterioration in renal function which ends fatally in uraemia and its complications.
CAUSES OF RENAL FAILURE
Haemorrhage: Bleeding, also called haemorrhage, is the name used to describe blood loss. It can refer to blood loss inside the body, called internal bleeding, or to blood loss outside of the body, called external bleeding. This is blood escaping from the circulatory system from damaged blood vessels. Blood loss can occur in almost any area of the body Caused by trauma, or accident.
Dehydration: A dangerous loss of body fluid caused by illness, sweating or inadequate intake. simply put not having enough water or other fluids in your body
Burns: Damage to the skin or deeper tissues caused by sun, hot liquids, fire, electricity or chemicals. The degree of severity of most burns is based on the size and depth of the burn. Electrical burns, however, are more difficult to diagnose because they’re capable of causing significant injury beneath the skin without showing any signs of damage on the surface.
Symptoms range from a feeling of minor discomfort to a life-threatening emergency, depending on the size and depth (degree) of the burn. Sunburn and small scalds can often be treated at home. Deep or widespread burns and chemical or electrical burns need immediate medical care, often at specialised burn units.
Shock: Shock is a life-threatening condition that occurs when the body is not getting enough blood flow. Lack of blood flow means the cells and organs do not get enough oxygen and nutrients to function properly. Many organs can be damaged as a result. Shock requires immediate treatment and can get worse very rapidly.
Cardiac failure: Heart failure, sometimes known as congestive heart failure, occurs when your heart muscle doesn’t pump blood as well as it should. Certain conditions, such as narrowed arteries in your heart (coronary artery disease) or high blood pressure, gradually leave your heart too weak or stiff to fill and pump efficiently.
Renal artery occlusion: Reduced blood flow through the renal artery can hurt kidney function. A complete blockage of blood flow to the kidney can often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury or trauma to the abdomen, side, or back. (something blocking the tube carrying blood).
Renal tubular Necrosis: Acute tubular necrosis is a condition that damages part of a person’s kidneys. This can occur as a result of a lack of oxygen and blood flow to the kidneys. The condition can lead to acute kidney failure. There are tube-shaped structures in the kidneys called tubules.
Simply put the tube carrying urine is dead.
Glomerulonephritis (GN): This is inflammation of the glomeruli, which are structures in your kidneys that are made up of tiny blood vessels. These knots of vessels help filter your blood and remove excess fluids. If your glomeruli are damaged, your kidneys will stop working properly, and you can go into kidney failure.
Calculi: The plural of calculus. Medically, a calculus is a stone, for example, a kidney stone.
A stone, is a concretion of material, usually mineral salts, that forms in an organ or duct of the body. Formation of calculi is known as lithiasis. Stones can cause a number of medical conditions.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF RENAL FAILURE.
Oliguria: This means the kidney is not producing enough urine.
Haematuria: Kidney not sieving blood so blood is escaping through your urine.
Proteinuria: Body nutrients escaping through your urine.
Anuria: This means you are not producing urine at all.
Vomiting: This occurs when too much waste has accumulated in the body.
Malaise: This means having swollen legs and puffy face.
Restlessness: is feeling the need to constantly move, being unable to calm your mind, or a combination of the two.
Headache: A painful sensation in any part of the head, ranging from sharp to dull, that may occur with other symptoms.
Oedema: known as dropsy, is a term for fluid retention in the body.
Metabolic Acidosis: this is the presences of acid in the body due to lack of enough liquid in the body.
Increased respiratory rate:
Clinical manifestations are good diagnostic indices
Increase in blood urea nitrogen
Increase in serum potassium level
MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE AND CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE.
- Maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance.
- Maintenance of nutrition. Keep a healthy diet
- Treatment of the underlying cause.
- Nursing care.
- Psychological care.
- Prevention of infections.
- Chemotherapy e.g. multivitamins diuretics.
- Treatment of hypertension and anaemia if present.
- Exercise to avoid a sedentary lifestyle.